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From 'A Buddhist Theory of Moral Objectivity', Ph.D Thesis by Robert Ellis, written 2001 



Note: Dates of editions given are of those I actually used, not necessarily the first or the most

recent. Titles of actual published modern works are underlined, and thus distinguished from

the works which are occasionally referred to in the main text of the book in their original form,

not specific to edition or translation, in italics. Buddhist texts of anonymous authorship

referred to are listed separately at the end of the bibliography.


Allison, Henry E. (1983) Kant’s Transcendental Idealism Yale University Press, New Haven

Conn./ London

Althusser, Louis, trans. B. Brewster (1977) For Marx New Left Books, London

(St.) Ambrose, trans. H. de Romestin et al. (1896) “On the Duties of the Clergy” from Some of

the Principal Works of St. Ambrose (Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers vol. X) James

Parker & co., Oxford

Annas, Julia & Barnes, Jonathan (1985) The Modes of Scepticism Cambridge University

Press, Cambridge

Aristotle, trans. Benjamin Jowett (1905) Politics Oxford University Press, London

Aristotle, trans. John Warrington (1964) Prior and Posterior Analytics Dent, London

Aristotle, trans. Hippocrates G. Apostle (1969) Physics Indiana University Press,


Aristotle, trans. Thomson/Tredennick (1976: revised edn.) Ethics Penguin, London

Aristotle, trans. Hugh Lawson-Tancred (1986) De Anima Penguin, London

Asvaghosha, trans. E. H. Johnston (1972:2nd edn) Buddhacarita Oriental Books Reprint Corp.,

New Delhi

(St.) Augustine, trans. F. J. Sheed (1944) Confessions Sheed & Ward, London

Ayer, A.J. (1946:2nd Edn) Language, Truth and Logic Penguin, London

Ayer, A.J. (1965) Philosophical Essays Macmillan, London

Bainton, Ronald H. (1950) Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther Abingdon Press, Nashville

Bartholomeusz, Tessa J., and de Silva, Chandra R. (1998) “Buddhist Fundamentalism and

Identity in Sri Lanka” from Buddhist Fundamentalism and Minority Identities in Sri Lanka

State University of New York Press, Albany

Batchelor , Stephen (1983) Alone with Others Grove Press, New York

Bentham, Jeremy, ed. Mary Warnock (1962) “The Principles of Morals and Legislation”

extracted in Mill Utilitarianism Fontana, London

Berlin, Isaiah (1969) “Two Concepts of Liberty” from Four Essays on Liberty Oxford

University Press, Oxford/New York

Bird, Graham (1986) William James Routledge, London

Blackburn, Simon (1996) The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy Oxford University Press,

Oxford/New York

Blackburn, Simon (1998) Ruling Passions Oxford University Press, Oxford

Blake, William (1975, reproducing plates of 1789) The Marriage of Heaven and Hell Oxford

University Press, Oxford/New York

Bright, John (1960) A History of Israel SCM Press, London

Brink, David O. (1986) “Utilitarian Morality and the Personal Point of View” from The

Journal of Philosophy vol.83, no.8

Britton, Karl (1953) John Stuart Mill Penguin, Harmondsworth

Brown, Alan (1987) Modern Political Philosophy Penguin, London

Buddhaghosa, Bhadantacariya, trans. Nanamoli (1991: 5th Edn.) The Path of Purification

(Visuddhimagga) Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka

Bultmann, Rudolf, trans. Reginald Fuller (1956) Primitive Christianity Thames & Hudson,


Burnyeat, M.F. (1980) “Can the Skeptic Live His Skepticism?” from Doubt and Dogmatism

ed. Malcolm Schofield, Myles Burnyeat, & Jonathan Barnes: Oxford University Press, Oxford

Calvino, Italo, trans. William Weaver (1974) Invisible Cities Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,

San Diego/New York

Campbell, Keith (1984:2nd Edn) Body and Mind University of Notre Dame Press, Notre

Dame Indiana

Carnap, Rudolph (1962) Logical Foundations of Probability University of Chicago Press,


Cassirer, Ernst, trans. James Haden (1981) Kant’s Life and Thought Yale University Press,

New Haven Conn./London

Chalmers, A.F. (1982: 2nd Edn) What is this thing called Science? Open University Press,

Milton Keynes

Conze, Edward (ed. and trans. ) (1959) Buddhist Scriptures Penguin, London

Cottingham, John (1986) Descartes Blackwell, Oxford/Cambridge Mass.

Cupitt, Don (1980) Taking Leave of God SCM, London

Danto, Arthur (1980) Nietzsche as Philosopher Columbia University Press, New York

Davidson, Donald (1984) “On the very idea of a conceptual scheme” from Enquiries into

Truth and Interpretation Oxford University Press, Oxford

Dawkins, Richard (1976) The Selfish Gene Penguin, London

Deikman, Arthur J. (1980) “Deautomatization and the Mystic Experience” and “Bimodal

Consciousness and the Mystic Experience” both from Understanding Mysticism ed. Richard

Woods: Athlone Press, London

Deleuze, Gilles, trans. Hugh Tomlinson (1983) Nietzsche and Philosophy Athlone Press,


Descartes, René, ed. Charles Adam & Paul Tannery (1974-83) Oeuvres Vrin, Paris

Descartes, René trans. John Veitch (1912) ‘Meditations’ from A Discourse on Method,

Meditations and Principles J.M. Dent, London

De Vaux, Roland, trans. John McHugh (1973) Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions Darton,

Longman & Todd, London

Dewey, John (1922) Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology

Unwin, London

Dewey, John (1930) The Quest for Certainty Unwin, London

Dewey, John (1944) Democracy and Education Macmillan, New York

Dewey, John (1960) Theory of the Moral Life Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York

Dewey, John, ed. Debra Morris & Ian Shapiro (1993) The Political Writings Hackett,


Dodd, C.H. (1936) Parables of the Kingdom James Nisbet, Welwyn

Dworkin, Ronald (1978) “Liberalism” from Public and Private Morality ed. S. Hampshire:

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Ellis, Robert (1997) “Revelation, Wisdom, and Learning from Religion: A Response to D.G.

Attfield” from British Journal of Religious Education 19:2  Available on this website

Ellis, Robert (2000) “Parfit and the Buddha: Identity and Identification in Reasons and

Persons from Contemporary Buddhism 1:1  Available on this website

Feyerabend, Paul (1974) “Consolations for the Specialist” from Criticism and the Growth of

Knowledge ed. I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Feyerabend, Paul (1975) Against Method New Left Books, London

Feyerabend, Paul (1978) Science in a Free Society New Left Books, London

Flintoff, E. (1980) “Pyrrho and India” from Phronesis 25

Fogelin, Robert J. (1987- 2nd Edn) Wittgenstein Routledge, London

Frankfurt, Harry G. (1982) “Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person” from ed. Gary

Watson Freewill Oxford University Press, Oxford

Frege, Gottlob, trans. J.L. Austin (1950) Foundations of Arithmetic Blackwell, Oxford

Freud, Sigmund, trans. James Strachey et al. (1953) “The Case of ‘Dora’” from Complete

Works Vol. VII Hogarth Press, London

Freud, Sigmund, trans. James Strachey et al. (1955) “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” from

Complete Works Vol. XVIII Hogarth Press, London

FWBO (Friends of the Western Buddhist Order) (1999) Puja: The FWBO Book of Buddhist

Devotional Texts Windhorse Pubns, Birmingham

Geanakoplos, Deno J. (1979) Medieval Western Civilisation and the Byzantine and Islamic

Worlds D. C. Heath & Co., Lexington/Toronto

Green, Robert W. ed. (1973: 2nd Edn.) Protestantism, Capitalism and Social Science: The

Weber Thesis Controversy D.C. Heath & Co., Lexington Mass./Toronto

Green, V.H.H. (1964) Renaissance and Reformation Edward Arnold, London

Grubb, Edward (1929) What is Quakerism? Unwin, London

Hacker, P.M.S. (1972) Insight and Illusion Oxford University Press, London

Hadot, Pierre, trans. Michael Chase (1995) Philosophy as a Way of Life Blackwell, Oxford

Hall, Stuart G. (1991) Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church SPCK, London

Hanfling, Oswald (1981) Logical Positivism Blackwell, Oxford

Hankinson, R. J. (1995) The Sceptics Routledge, London

Hare, R.M. (1963) Freedom and Reason Oxford University Press, Oxford

Hare, R.M. (1981) Moral Thinking Oxford University Press, Oxford

Hatfield E (1980) “Equity, Theory and Research”: A review in Love, Sex and the Marketplace

New York Academic, New York

Hayes, Richard P. (1998) Land of No Buddha: Reflections of a Sceptical Buddhist Windhorse

Pubns, Birmingham

Hegel, G.W.F. trans. Robert S. Hartman (1953) Reason in History Bobbs-Merrill,


Hegel, G.W.F., trans. A.V. Miller (1977) Phenomenology of Spirit Oxford University Press,


Hegel, G.W.F. trans. Q. Lauer (1983) “Introduction to the History of Philosophy” from The

Idea of Philosophy Fordham University Press, New York

Hegel, G.W.F., trans. H.B Nisbet (1991) Elements of the Philosophy of Right Cambridge

University Press, Cambridge

Heidegger, Martin, trans. A. Crick & R. F. C. Hull, (1949) “What is Metaphysics?” from ed.

W. Brock Existence and Being University of Chicago Press, Chicago

Heidegger, Martin, trans. John Macquarrie & Edward Robinson (1962) Being and Time

Blackwell, Oxford

Heidegger, Martin, trans. Peter D. Hertz (1971) On the Way to Language Harper & Row,

New York

Heidegger, Martin, trans. W. McNeill & N. Walker (1995) The Fundamental Concepts of

Metaphysics: World, Finitude, Solitude Indiana University Press, Bloomington Indiana

Hick, John (1964) “Theology and Verification” from The Existence of God ed. John Hick:

Macmillan, New York

Hobbes, Thomas (1909) Leviathan Oxford University Press, London

Hookway, Christopher (1990) Scepticism Routledge, London

Huizinga, J. (1924) The Waning of the Middle Ages Edward Arnold, London

Hume, David, ed. Henry D. Aiken (1966) Dialogues concerning Natural Religion Hafner,

New York

Hume, David, ed. L.A. Selby-Bigge & P.H. Nidditch (1975: 3rd Edn) Enquiries concerning

Human Understanding and concerning the Principles of Morals Oxford University Press,


Hume, David, ed. L.A. Selby-Bigge & P.H. Nidditch (1978) A Treatise of Human Nature

Oxford University Press, Oxford

Husserl, Edmund, trans. Dorion Cairns (1960) Cartesian Meditations Martinus Nijhoff, The


Huxley, Aldous (1962) Island Chatto & Windus, London

Inwood, M.J. (1983) Hegel Routledge, London

Irwin, Terence (1995) Plato’s Ethics Oxford University Press, Oxford

Jacobson, Nolan Pliny (1966) Buddhism: The Religion of Analysis Unwin, London

James, William (1905) Principles of Psychology (in 2 vols.) Macmillan, London

James, William (1952) The Varieties of Religious Experience Longmans, London

James, William (1956) The Will to Believe Dover, New York

James, William (1981) Pragmatism Hackett, Indianapolis

James, William (1995) Selected Writings J.M. Dent, London

Jones, Peter (1989) “The Ideal of the Neutral State” from Liberal Neutrality ed. Robert E.

Goodin and Andrew Reeve: Routledge, London

Jung, C.G. (1966) “The Practical Use of Dream-Analysis” from Collected Works vol. 16: The

Practice of Psychotherapy Bollingen Foundation, New York

Jung, C.G. (1969:2nd Edn) The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious: Collected Works

vol.9 Pt.1 Routledge, London/Bollingen Foundation, New York

Jürgen-Goertz, Hans, trans. Trevor Johnson (1996) The Anabaptists Routledge, London

Kain, Philip J. (1988) Marx and Ethics Oxford University Press, New York

Kamalashila (1992) Meditation: the Buddhist Way of Tranquillity and Insight Windhorse

Pubns., Glasgow

Kamenka, Eugene (1969) Marxism and Ethics Macmillan, London

Kant, Immanuel trans. Norman Kemp Smith (1929) Critique of Pure Reason Macmillan,


Kant, Immanuel trans. Theodore M. Greene & Hoyt H. Hudson (1960) Religion within the

Limits of Reason Alone Harper & Row, New York

Kant, Immanuel trans. J. Ladd (1965) The Metaphysical Elements of Justice Bobbs-Merill,

New York

Kant, Immanuel trans. Werner Pluhar (1987) Critique of Judgement Hackett, Indianapolis


Kant, Immanuel trans. Lewis White Beck (1993: 3rd Edn) Critique of Practical Reason

Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey

Kant, Immanuel trans. Lewis White Beck (1995) Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals

(2nd Edn) Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey

Kee, Alistair (1982) Constantine versus Christ SCM Press, London

Keown, Damien (1992) The Nature of Buddhist Ethics Macmillan, Basingstoke

Kerferd, G.B. (1978) “What Does the Wise Man Know?” from The Stoics ed. John M. Rist:

University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles/London

Kierkegaard, Søren, trans. & ed. Alexander Dru (1958) The Journals of Kierkegaard 1834-

1854 Collins, London

Kierkegaard, Søren, trans. David S. Swenson & Howard V. Hong (1962:2nd Edn)

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Kierkegaard, Søren, trans. Alastair Hannay (1985) Fear and Trembling Penguin, London

Kierkegaard, Søren, trans. Alastair Hannay (1992a) Either/Or Penguin, London

Kierkegaard, Søren, trans. Howard V. & Edna H. Hong (1992b) Concluding Unscientific

Postscript to Philosophical FragmentsPrinceton University Press, Princeton

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Körner, S. (1967) “The Impossibility of Transcendental Deductions” from Monist 51

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Press, Chicago

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Lakatos, Imre (1974) “Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes”

from Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge ed. I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave: Cambridge

University Press, Cambridge

Lakoff, George (1987) Women, Fire and Dangerous Things Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago

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Leff, Gordon (1969) History and Social Theory Merlin Press, London

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Condition: A Report on Knowledge Manchester University Press, Manchester

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Blackwell, Oxford

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Buddhist Texts

These are listed under their Pali or Sanskrit headings [in Roman alphabetical order], followed

by the translation or translations which I have used. Only anonymous texts are listed here:

those with identifiable authors are found in the main bibliography under that author.


Anguttara Nikaya: trans. F. L. Woodward (1960) The Book of the Gradual Sayings (in 5

vols.) Pali Text Society, London

Dhammapada: trans. (1) S. Radhakrishnan (1950) The Dhammapada Oxford University

Press, Madras; trans. (2) Acharya Buddharakkhita (1996:2nd Edn) The Dhammapada: The

Buddha’s Path of Wisdom Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy Sri Lanka

Digha Nikaya: trans. Maurice Walshe (1995) The Long Discourses of the Buddha Wisdom

Publications, Boston

Majjhima Nikaya: trans. Bhikkhus Nanamoli & Bodhi (1995) The Middle Length Discourses

of the Buddha Wisdom Publications, Boston

Milindapanha: trans. T.W. Rhys Davids (1890) The Questions of King Milinda Motilal

Banarsidass, Delhi

Samyutta Nikaya: trans. Bhikkhu Bodhi (2000) The Connected Discourses of the Buddha (in 2

vols.) Wisdom Publications, Boston

Udana:trans. John D. Ireland (1990) The Udana Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy

Vajracchedika Sutra: trans. A.F. Price and Wong Mou-Lam (1969) The Diamond Sutra and

the Sutra of Hui-Neng Shambhala, Boston


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A Buddhist Theory of Moral Objectivity: quick links to other sections


1. introduction

2a. Psychology of belief

2b. Heuristic process

2c. Psychology & philosophy

3ab. Eternalism

3cd. Plato

3e. Stoicism

3f. Christianity

3g. Kant

3h. Hegel

3i. Marx

3j. Schopenhauer

3kl. Utilitarianism

4a. Nihilism

4b. Scepticism & Aristotle

4c. Hume

4d. Analytic Philosophy

4e. Wittgenstein

4f. Pragmatism

4g. Nietzsche

4hi. Existentialists

5. Integration

6. Philosophical Problems

7. Normativity

8. Middle Way Ethics

9. Conclusion

10. Appendix



Other books:

A New Buddhist Ethics

The Trouble with Buddhism


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